Collision Prediction and Accident Reconstruction using Vehicular Communication

  • InterVehicle

Inter-vehicle communication (i.e. V2V/V2I) systems based on wireless ad-hoc networks are a promising alternative for future road communication, as they offer lower delays required for exchanging safety related messages between vehicles, because communication is done locally in ad-hoc networks, with relatively reduced cost since there are no need for pre-installed infrastructure.

Vehicular communication gives cars the ability to send and receive messages either to/from other cars, or roadside units, within a certain range. This means that information regarding traffic incidents, surrounding vehicle’s dynamic state, safety messages etc. can be shared among vehicles in the same vicinity, to give the drivers real-time notifications on what to expect as they drive.

vc

Communication is a key aspect of this project because vehicles and RSU’s need to be able to transmit messages to and from neighboring vehicles, infrastructures, base stations etc. efficiently. Most recent and accepted architectures for VC rely on Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC), which allows for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V/C2C) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I/C2I) communication within 1000 meters, where V2V is communication between vehicles and other vehicles, and V2I is communication between vehicles and roadside units. The vehicles and roadside units act as the communicating nodes, where message transmission is done locally i.e. without the need for fixed infrastructures or base stations, this is known as a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET). Its application depends on frequent data exchanges among vehicles, and between vehicles and roadside units, providing each other with their dynamic state (including location, speed and acceleration), safety warnings, traffic information etc.

The basic idea uses wireless communication for vehicles within a certain range of each other to be able to continuously monitor and compare their respective geographical locations in relation to neighboring vehicles, in order to predict the likelihood of a surrounding vehicle posing a collision threat.

Accident reconstruction can be seen as an added feature to the collision warning system. It caters for the worst-case scenario, where the accident could not be prevented, maybe as a result of the driver’s inability to respond to the collision warning. The idea is to be able to review the dynamic state of the vehicle in question and its neighbors after a crash has occurred, in order to aid investigations.